How Do Telescopes Work Telescope Construction At Home

By John B Mayall

There are telescopes of several brands that are freely available in the market. However, even for one who wants to construct his telescope at home, there are several viable options.

One way to go about constructing a telescope is to buy each individual component and then assemble the whole structure. The required elements are mirrors, concave and convex lenses, the housing structure, brackets, and some other components. These can all be bought at local shops or in online stores. A comprehensive list of required elements can be downloaded from websites that serve as guides for amateurs looking to build their own telescopes. Books dedicated to this subject are available.

An enthusiast may also want to construct each element by hand at home, though that is an extremely time-consuming process and not the usual home method. It is a cumbersome process to create the housing compartment and arranging each element inside it. If one wants to follow this method, then one must be prepared to face several hurdles in the construction process.


Another method is to make use of telescope kits, which are available in the markets. These kits contain all the required elements and include instruction manuals to guide amateurs working at home. Using kit elements and assembling the instrument is considered a better method than constructing a telescope from individual elements bought separately. Telescope kits are cheaper and far less time-consuming than other methods of telescope construction. They save time spent on searching for each required component. Step-by-step instructions make it possible to work faster, making fewer mistakes along the way. These kits are intended for amateurs, and first-timers not yet experienced in making telescopes. A professional astronomer or one who aims to become a professional may however choose to work from scratch.

The point of consideration now is whether homemade telescopes are better than readymade instruments available otherwise. The simple answer to such a question is that both are almost the same with respect to quality. A homemade instrument displays the same characteristics as a readymade one of the same specification. A telescope made at home will have the same magnification factor, and is simpler to use in comparison to one bought in a shop. In fact, it is not complex at all and is similar to the ones built by early astronomers like Galileo.

The construction of telescopes at home, in truth, is often a joy, and a hobby that many enjoy. Several people consider it akin to an art, and have dedicated themselves to creating perfect instruments at home. Several sites online are a medium for proud astronomers to display their homemade telescopes. There are also web pages in existence that are dedicated guides for amateurs who want to create their own telescopes. Such pages give comprehensive lists of the elements required for its construction as well.

As with any other task, exhaustive research is required before setting out to make a telescope. It is imperative that the builder understands how each element performs individually and how it affects the whole. It also advisable to have storage space for the material required in construction of a telescope. However, despite all the effort that goes into construction of a homemade instrument, the results are reward enough.

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Htc &Amp; Samsung The Kings Of Unlocked Cell Phones

Unlocked cell phones are the ones that do not have the “lock” software that make them loyal to a network provider. Hence unlocked phones provide users with the freedom to choose their own service provider. There are a wide variety of unlocked phones to choose from such as the Samsung phones or HTC phones which come in a wide variety of cost ranges to choose from. Often users with a cell phone contract have noticed the unbelievable bills they get stuck with at the end of the month.

Having an unlocked cell phone gives users the freedom of choosing a network provider that gives them the cheapest and suitable plan. Users who travel abroad can make the most use of an unlocked phone by using a pay as you go sim card at any location they travel to. These sim cards are much cheaper and do not leave you worrying about the bill. Unlocked Samsung phones or HTC phones not only provide you with a large range to choose from, but also allow you to use your favorite phone with the carrier of your choice.


Samsung phones are the preferred choice when it comes to buying unlocked phones. Network carriers too are realizing the importance and demand of unlocked cell phones and designing their plans accordingly. Not only are the plans becoming more competitive, they also come with additional benefits that tempt users into shifting. To aid this shift, unlocked phones are a great option.

HTC phones have a high demand rate for users going for a phone that is unlocked. These phones come in a variety of styles and features and can suit all kinds of users. Owners of unlocked phones can also change their handset easily without having to worry about any additional costs they may incur. Now why think twice before getting an unlocked phone?

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PhoneSale is one of the most trusted names in the world of unlocked cell phones. They carry a wide selection from all the major brands including Samsung phones and HTC phones all with Free Shipping!Author: Jinesh Cheda

Kidney Disease In Dogs

By Geoffrey English

Kidney disease in dogs is very serious and is usually incurable. It is a condition that often affects older dogs and is related to the declining years in the life of a dog. There are two types of kidney disease in dogs – acute and chronic. When the kidneys fail to function in the proper way, by eliminating toxins from the body, the toxins build up and usually end up damaging the kidneys irreparably. It is usually very devastating to the dog owner to discover that their dog has kidney disease. However, there are some things that can be done to make the dog comfortable and prolong life.

Causes of kidney disease in dogs

One common cause of kidney disease can be drinking antifreeze, a toxin that is known to kill dogs. Trauma and blood loss are also causes of acute kidney disease.

When it comes to chronic kidney disease in dogs, this is usually related to age. As a dog ages, his health begins to fail and his organs to slowly stop functioning at normal levels. In some cases, the cause of chronic kidney disease can be the fact that the kidneys were malformed and it is a congenital birth defect. Cancer, hypertension and immune diseases can also contribute to kidney disease in dogs.

Symptoms of kidney disease in dogs

As the kidneys stop functioning at a normal level, the symptoms of kidney disease become more apparent. Any dog owner should be aware of this condition, especially as it is common in older dogs. Some of the symptoms of kidney disease in dogs include the following:


Excessive thirst A stiff, arched back Not eating Reduced urine production Blood in urine

Acute kidney disease is life threatening for the dog and any signs of kidney disease require emergency treatment. There are ways that kidney disease can be treated if caught early. Often, the condition is not caught in time and brings a death sentence to the dog who has toxins fill up in the body so that all the organs shut down.

Treatment of kidney disease in dogs

After the diagnosis of kidney disease in the dog is made, the vet will then advise the dog owner on what to do. Most dog owners are devastated over this news because in most cases, it is incurable. If caught early, the toxins can be eliminated from the body. However, since most symptoms show up after the kidneys have lost two thirds of their function, a cure is usually impossible. Vitamins, natural herbs and ingredients like cinnamon bark, marshmallow and wild hydrangea can help to reduce the inflammation of the kidneys. Dogs with kidney disease should be given plenty of water and also have their salt intake reduced so that they do not dehydrate. Underlying causes for the disease should be examined. In the case of acute kidney infection, death may be imminent. In the case of chronic kidney disease, the owner can preserve the life of the dog and make him comfortable and well rested.

In very rare cases, a kidney transplant on the dog can be performed. This is very unusual, however, and expensive for the dog owner.

Prevention of kidney disease in dogs

In older dogs that simply have failing kidneys, there is nothing that the owner can do to prevent it, except make the dog comfortable and try to watch the diet so that the kidneys do not have to work too hard. A dog with chronic kidney disease can end up living for years with the illness.

Making sure that the dog does not ingest toxins is one way to prevent kidney disease. Keep antifreeze out of your garage or lock it in a place where the dog cannot get to it. You should keep the dog out of the garage because of the dangers of antifreeze leaking from the car.

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Get Driving With A New Gps

Submitted by: Marytk Hedani

Being a technology nerd, lots of you are fully aware of GPS devices and their positive aspects. It had been only not too long ago that a car would drive by with a gps mount on their dash (or in their dash) only to be noticed and admired by people. At this time, a gps in a vechicle, is very commonplace. This is especially true, given the large price reductions we have observed in this technology within the last 3 years or so. For me, it is just a essential tool on road trips as well as navigating about town.

It’s the ultimate present for anybody, from the new driver to the individual who thinks they always know where they’re going. The assortment of features available on the current devices are simply awesome. From whole listings of shopping locations, petrol stations, dining establishments, recreational areas, hospitals, and so on, there seriously is not much that isn’t already integrated inside the database to be discovered.

Features. The price range for most consumer models fall into the $69 to $399 range, with even more costly models out there. Among my favorite features would be the lane-change advisor, wihich tells you which lane to be within on a freeway when getting close to the turn off as well as exit. Additional features include, bluetooth ability, mp3 in addition to live traffic reporting. Everything simply just depends on what’s important to you.


As with any industry, there are the few so-called “big players” in the market. Currently, I’d have to say that Garmin, Magellan and Tom Tom are leading the way in the consumer market. They all make great units.

Of these three, I’d have to say that Garmin is the king. Their broad range of devices (for auto, marine, and handhelds), coupled with superior technology and quality make them the premier brand. Prices are also reflective of their “king” status. Tom Tom, in recent years, has become a major player in the conumser market. Magellan, my favorite, was actually the pioneeer in the GPS industry. You can’t go wrong with any of these manufacturers.

Okay, let’s get down to it and talk about features. Typically, almost any unit which you purchase from these corporations will include the following: a touch screen interface, voice guidance, an enormous database of “POI” (point of interests), as well as the ability to auto-calculate range and time, as well as automatic re-routing capabilities if you ever make a wrong turn, etc. All of these features can be had for around $100, if you look very carefully. Monitor sizes may be a bit on the small size at 3.5″, however.

Of course, if you just have to possess the top-of-the-line, bleeding-edge unit, be ready to spend a minimum of $300 or so. However, you will certainly get alot for the exta cash. At this level, you will experience all of the features earlier mentioned, and also such niceties as bluetooth technology for making as well as receiving phone calls in a hands-free manner, traffic updates in real-time, and also up-to-date weather conditions.

In the end, it’s up to you and your own budget. The technology has become inexpensive enough for many, and the ease-of-use is finally at an acceptable level. Therefore, dispose of your maps and get a gps and never be lost again. Happy travels!

About the Author: Yes, Mary is female and a gadget freak. For more info on gps devices and

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